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Surya Prakash, from Bharati Vidhyapeeth, Pune.

Date: 22.04.2021



Physical violence against detainees in police custody by the agents of law is prevailing in some type or different across the globe. This paper presents a review of brutality committed by police personnel against detainees in police custody that’s in police lock-ups at police stations in India. Police severity is an unprecedented sort of police brutality together with physical injury or passing to a private or creature. Widespread police exist in many countries and territories, even people that prosecute it, though the Associate in the Nursing embezzled act is performed beneath the system of law. Such brutality in India takes the types of torture, interrogation, rape, likewise as tutelary death ensuing from physical violence.

KEYWORDS: India, Police brutality, Physical violence, Illegal


The chief reason for criminal equity organization is to save and shield law and order i.e., bunch activity of law, upkeep of request, quick preliminary, punishment of guilty parties, and recovery of wrongdoers through the judicatory, and comfort to survivors of wrongdoings. The present criminal justice system is full of varied loopholes and faults. The legal approach is long and customarily meshed towards the mind of the suspect i.e., a system that’s involved the rights and interests of the wrongdoer rather than those of the victims.[1] The present criminal justice system has been unsuccessful in delivering speedy and prompt justice to individuals and guaranteeing the knowledge of penalization to perpetrators of crime. the need is thus to supply a reformed explore the assorted aspects of the criminal justice system within the field of justice for individuals and relating to the increasing challenges of criminal justice reform. 




•           CHOWKI – A police station or Thana

•           CIRCLE OFFICER – Officer in charge of a police circle, which consist of few police stations

•           FIR – First Information Report, the recorded complaint of a crime filled by police

•           DGP – director General of Police, the highest – ranking police officer of each state police organisation.

•           IPS – Indian Police Service, the cadre of senior police administer by the central government

•           LATHI – A heavy bamboo stick with a metal rim, used as a weapon especially by the police; a baton

•           SHO – Station house officer

•           MUNSHI –   The writer a police officer who maintains records

•           DAILY DIARY – A community service register is a diary maintained in every India police station under Police Act 1861, for a non-cognizable offense.


Political legislating Nexus: Second body Reforms Commission (2007) has noted that the excessive power within the hands of police has been abused within the past by the political govt to unduly impact police staff, and have them served individual or political interests. Further, there has been associate degree increasing development of legislating of politics. This nexus interferes with skilled decision-making by the police (e.g., relating to the way to reply to law and order things or the way to conduct investigations), leading to a biased performance of duties. Hundreds of people were reported to have died in police custody.[2] A loaded down Police Force: State police forces had pure gold vacancies (about five.5 100000 vacancies) in January 2016. Hence, whereas the sanctioned police strength was 181 police per 100000 persons in 2016, the particular strength was 137 police. This is manner too low when put next with the United Nations’ counselled commonplace of 222 police per 100000 persons.

Further, a mean peace officer finally ends up having huge work and long operating hours, which negatively affects his potency and performance.[3] Need to set Police accountability: In the Republic of India, numerous types of complaints are created against the police as well as complaints of unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture, and protective rapes. To check against such abuse of power, numerous safeguards ought to be adopted, like answerability of the police to the political govt, internal answerability to senior cops, and freelance police oversight authorities.

Lack of Resources: CAG audits have found shortages in aggregation with state police forces as an example; Rajasthan and West Bengal had shortages of seventy-fifth and seventy-one severally in needed aggregation with the state police. Also, the Bureau of Police analysis and Development has additionally noted a thirty.5% deficiency available of needed vehicles with the state forces. Further, funds dedicated to the modernization of infrastructure are generally not used absolutely. As an example, in 2015-16, solely 14 July of such funds were employed by the states.

Ways Forward:-


Ø  Curbing legislating of Politics: The criminal nexus with politics can be broken and reforms should begin with the form of government. Thus, there’s a requirement for laws that debars persons with serious criminal cases from coming into the assemblies and also the Parliament.


Ø  Revamping Criminal Justice System: There’s a requirement to include the Menon Committee and Malimath Committee recommendations for making a national policy paper on the criminal justice system. a number of the key recommendations are as follows:


·       Creation of a fund to compensate victims World Health Organization flips hostile from the pressure of culprits.

·       Setting up separate authority at the national level to agitate crimes threatening the country’s security. A complete revamp of the complete criminal procedure system.

Ø  Independent Complaints Authority: The Supreme Court has discovered that there’s a requirement to possess associate degree freelance complaints authority to touch upon complaints of police misconduct. The Model Police Act, 2006 needs every state to line up associate degree authority comprising retired judicature Judges, civil society members, retired cops, and public directors from another state.


Implementing the Supreme Court’s Directive: The Supreme Court’s directions in the Prakash Singh case 2006 on police reforms should be enforced. The court set out seven directives wherever right smart add police reforms remains required.


Looking at the force within the country, India’s force is split into 2 categories: Civil Police and Armed Police. Civil Police are selected for maintaining law and order, interference and detection of crime and enforcement. Armed Police, on the opposite hand, are seeing throughout natural disasters or riots/civil unrest. The previous manages police stations, conduct investigations, answer routine complaints, perform traffic duties, and patrol the streets. The Armed Police, on the opposite hand, is divided into 2 teams, the district armed police and also the Provincial Armed law (Pradeshik). The district armed police are unionized on the lines of a military army unit battalion. They appointed to the police officers and perform guard and escort duties. The Provincial Armed law is an associate armed reserve maintained at key locations in some states and acts solely on orders from the deputy military officer and higher-level authorities. Armed law doesn’t seem to be sometimes in-tuned with the general public till they’re appointed to VIP duty or appointed to keep up the order throughout fairs, festivals, athletic events, elections, and natural disasters.


 They’ll even be sent to quell outbreaks of student or labour unrest, unionized crime, and communal riots; to keep up key guard posts, and to participate in anti-terrorist operations. Broadly, the Central soldiers are Border private security force, Central Industrial private security force, Central Reserve Police Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, National Security Guards, and Special Police cluster.[4] Additionally the on top of the two classes, Bharat additionally has central investigation and intelligence establishments. These embrace the Central Bureau of Investigation, National Investigation Agency amongst others.



The criminal justice system may be a structure that involves ranked organizations consisting of various components operating along or severally for a typical purpose. These organizations produce laws that tell North American countries what conduct is prohibited, it additionally enforces penalties for participating in unlawful behaviour. Such laws need the courts to rule on guilt or innocence, and therefore the rehabilitation sub-systems to sanction the prisoners or conceive to rehabilitate them.[5] These are:

Ø  Legislative actions: the method of our criminal justice system, therefore, starts with the legislative actions. The law-makers, however, don’t represent associate structure as a part of the system except to worry that the premise of the entire system depends on the laws they create, and their abuses should be regulated or reduced.

Ø  Law enforcement: Police or enforcement sub-systems square measure consecutive a part of the criminal justice system. The police square measure gave these duties to preserve peace, law, and order, to discourage crime, and to arrest the violator of the law. The bulk of the criminal justice systems cannot fulfil their duties while not a sub-system for enforcement. Thousands of legislation are also gone by legislators however the law will be desecrated with exemption once the police refuse to act. As a primary enforcement body, police mustn’t solely target the efforts of execution completely different rules however additionally on the free execution of them.

Ø  Adjudication: It’s a judicial method any divided into i.e.


·       Prosecution- The public prosecutor decides however the judicial sub-system ought to prosecute a suspected violator. once the public prosecutor deems the case to be serious, formal charges shall be ordered down even so, he doesn’t have the flexibility to intervene.

·       Court- The role of the courts is a lot of important and essential than that of the police within the system of criminal justice. the first mission of the Court is to produce justice that ought to be” truthful, equal, quick, and unbiased. The judges should conduct their duties with guardianship and diligence to make sure that the public’s confidence within the judicial method isn’t undermined. The chairman should be aware that his call within the case would offer the suspect and therefore the victim a positive image of justice or unfairness, contrary to the accuser’s final decision or conviction, whether or not lawfully or legally. The primary requirement of justice is associate freelance, impartial, and competent judiciary. It should be understood that a wrongful final decision is each a breach of justice associated with an irrational read. ‘Rule of law’ in a very democratic society is that the operating instrument of justice.

Ø  Correctional agency: punitive establishments square measure the last important part of the criminal justice system. The punitive system tries to rehabilitate the bad person to stay him or her from violating the law once more. It’s hoped that by enabling the culprit, many folks would even be prevented from violating the law. Within the punitive system, there square measure 2 main options: probation and imprisonment, every with sure limits on one’s rights. together with corrections, facilities, and different rehabilitative programs like courts, tribunals, and punitive homes, rehabilitation facilities ought to be regarded not merely as punitive agencies or punitive agents, however as a life of their success within the criminal justice system.



A person is shocked if he/she learns that they failed to get the relief or cure that they may have expected, and step by step loses confidence within the framework of the presidency. the method is therefore disconnected from the folks it absolutely was engineered for and nurtured over time. There could also be different facts and circumstances within the variety of factors that cause the system’s challenges and that they are:

      I.          Lack of transparency.

    II.          Pendency of cases.

  III.          Cumbersome procedures.

  IV.          Lack of coordination and system approach

    V.          Corruption.

  VI.          Lack of awareness amongst people.

A judiciary that acknowledges the rule of law as a basic framework should abandon the culture of secrecy that surrounds its method. The pendency of legal proceedings is another key issue inside the Indian system. a typical expression says that “equity delayed is denied equity” and consistent with a 2017 survey, there square measure presently, nearly 60,000 cases unfinished inside the Supreme Court. Across separate jurisdictions, their square measure between twenty-five and thirty million cases. To no-touch, heavy procedural regulation often results in the delay within the resolution of proceedings. The shortage of management over the case file and legal proceedings results in the late disposition of cases in no tiny life. The question is furthered by the granting of undue delays just by posing for or by “strike decision.” the assorted aspects of the criminal justice system, that’s the police, prosecutors, judiciary, and punitive agencies, a square measure usually lacking in comprehension and cooperation. Corruption being associate degree recent evil has been current since the immoral times, thanks to delays in justice, inconvenience,  misuse of power, bribery, and therefore the troublesome legal document method, corruption is rising within the judiciary. Lastly, thanks to the shortage of knowledge and awareness concerning the law and its procedure, misuse, delay, and confusion among people is commonly making a drag. Speedy justice has forever been the sin qua non of criminal jurisprudence. The core of criminal justice is that the right to speedy trial and justice is inevitably denied.[6] As a result of the prolonged pendency of cases, a private suffers in multiple and alternative ways. Whereas he’s innocent, he has suffered psychological trauma, social isolation, and probably economic incapacity before he’s innocent. Though he’s guilty, delay shakes his religion within the criminal justice system and makes him distrustful. Therefore, it’s essential to eliminate the delay in disposition as so much because it is feasible for criminal cases. Though within the Constitution, the correct to prompt justice isn’t expressly explicit within the broad sweep of Article twenty-one as an elementary right, it’s inexplicit. Article twenty-one confers on everybody, except beneath the procedure ordered down in law, an elementary right to not be bereft of their lives or rights. the method for depriving anyone of freedom could currently clearly not be ” affordable, decent, or equal unless that procedure ensures a speedy trial for determination of guilt of such a person” aforementioned the Supreme Court within the case of Hussainara Khatoon v. Secretary of State for the Home Department of State of Bihar.

Various measures are taken to hurry up the disposal of arrears of cases. especially, on recommendations of the eleventh Finance Commission, the Central Government determined to form 1734 means courts for clearing up lingering cases in districts, as well as plugging the vacancies of judges, assessing operating days or annual vacations within the high courts, the districting and subordinate courts, and streamlining the principles and procedure and then on. Consistent with the report, clearance of oldest session cases and cases involving trials within the dungeons shall run priority by the means court. The prolonged civil cases would conjointly take priority over recent cases.

The government has fashioned a committee on Criminal Justice Reforms of twenty-four. 11.2000, that submitted its report on twenty-one. 04.2003, by Dr. Justice V. S. Malimath. The committee’s primary goal is to attain justice that is to penalize people who square measure guilty and shield people who square measure innocent. The committee counselled that the main focus of the program ought to get on the protection of the defendant. The committee found that the Brobdingnagian unfinished and recent inflows of cases were inadequately handled by the judges. The common quantitative relation of judges to the Indian population in several components of the planet is ten.5 to thirteen per million, compared with fifty Judges in an exceedingly million, whereas the govt of Asian country has got wind of a system for the handling of “Fast Track Courts” sessions.



We return to grasp regarding the assorted sick activities done by the police forces. Even youngsters are attacked by police and are gave no likelihood to be proved innocent. Instead, these folks are crushed and humiliated till proved Innocent. Dissimilar to in America, the police in Bharat does not regard the common privileges of a personal. The police in Bharat can legally arrest somebody and beat them into a confession even supposing they failed to even do the crime. a large range of “591 folks have died in police custody” attributable to the disrespect of human rights by these cops. They are doing not believe innocent till proved guilty, all they believe is crushed till proved guilty.[7]

The only reason that this has not stopped and has gotten worse is that these officers feel that they will depart with it. That “the powerful are ready to depart with it” which they’ll don’t have any consequences subsequently. That’s why these officers should be stopped before a lot of innocent folks died.[8]

The law in Bharat is that “police have twenty-four hours to prove the defendant guilty” and if that doesn’t happen then the defendant should be free. The solitary issue is that forward the police do not get associate degree admission, the individual is all told likelihood dead or the cops were paid off most of those who are desecrated by this are the folks of Bharat. Sadly, it’s all ages, even youngsters and also the old that are the victims to the constabulary. The violation is especially happening within the slums or terribly poor components of Bharat wherever the folks have little or no say in what happens to them. The violation is going on as a result of the police doesn’t respect these folks and a lot of significantly don’t respect their rights as people in general. The police could not care less regarding unimpeachable or blameable, all they have is someone to seem just like the rationale.




Their area unit instances once undue violence has been seen over the common plenty by the Police as directed by the incumbent government so setting Associate in nursing example for police brutality within the nation’s history. These areas unit the instances of Police Brutality that actually barrel America out of our reverie. Also, there are unit instances wherever the law enforcers have profaned the law and human rights alike.

Police brutality against the common plenty is that the predominant state of affairs within the World and here area unit some instances that left a mark within the Indian history.


It is additionally called the Amritsar massacre wherever police killed many folks by gap hearth. Brits Indian Army beneath the command of commissioned military officer Reginald skilled worker hurled bullets into the gang of Baishakhi pilgrims.  There was a majority of Sikh’s UN agency have assembled to require half within the Basishakhi celebrations. The incident happened on the thirteenth Gregorian calendar month 1919.


Babu Ghenu aforementioned, UN agency was full of life participant within the protests of metropolis textile mill, was crushed by a truck so as of police. This protest was organized by Indian independence activists against the import of foreign-made fabric. His death that occurred on twelve Dec 1930 sparked quite the furor.


Police brutality pink-slipped twenty-five bullets in his chest however he still unbroken alive by his resolution for one hour. This incident happened on 111th Jan 1982.


It was administered to the agitated tea-estate employees to silence them. It claimed seventeen lives in Thirunelveli, Tamil Nadu.


It happened in Nandi gram, province, and an Asian country following a failing project by the govt. of province beneath the Communist rule to accumulate land for SEZ (Special Economic Zone). a minimum of fourteen folks lost their lives within the police revolt within the region. This incident prompted the opponents to adapt the war cry Ma Malti Manush for the approaching elections.


Police opened hearth within the unarmed Uttrakhand activists at Rampur Tiraha in UP’s Muzaffarnagar district on 1-2 October throughout the night. Their claim was for a separate state of Uttarakhand and that they were on their thanks to Delhi to stage a Dharna at dominion staircase on Gandhi Jayanti. This indiscriminate police firing claimed six lives in conjunction with some ladies being allegedly raped.


The purpose of this paper was to critically review the phenomenon of physical violence committed by police personnel against the detainees in police custody in India. , the most unfortunate fact is that there is little or no enforcement of these laws. As a result, despite the presence of all these safeguards and legislations, torture, rape, and deaths in police custody have been extremely widespread across India. There is wide scope for abuse of power within the confines of police stations in India. Torture and other forms of cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment of detainees in police custody are encouraged by several factors. These include – routine denial of access by police to lawyers and relatives/ family members of the detainees, pressure on police to mete out instant punishment due to the inability of the criminal equity framework to convey equity quickly and adequately However, such policy-making requires a government with both a will and away. The rights of the detainees in police custody have little or no meaning unless there are agencies to enforce them and provide remedies for violations. Law enforcement and judicial levels need to work hand in hand to eradicate police brutality in custody. Senior police officers should ensure that no person or suspect is detained unlawfully and that he/she is not subjected to brutality in police custody. They should look upon the way of interrogating done by the police force and what are the procedure and methods they are using to do that for a cross-examination.  The policemen need to be reminded that in the event of custodial deaths, rape, and torture, they have to face prosecution. The bottom line is, maintenance of public order is largely the responsibility of the police. Police personnel at all ranks, from Indian Police Service officers to constables, must function within the framework of the law. Responsibility and cooperation at all levels and effective supervision and training of police personnel are necessary to minimize, if not completely eliminate, unlawful brutal activities of India’s police.


[2] Amnesty International 1999


[4] “National Requirement of Manpower for 8-Hour Shifts in Police Stations”, Study sponsored by Bureau of Police Research & Development, Govt. of India, August 2014, p. 128.



[7] World Asia , Jammu Pakistan convict India, 2015

[8] Human rights violation in Kashmir, 2016

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